An accountant, like a lawyer, is an indispensable person in an enterprise. A commercial legal entity or a non-profit organization – everywhere there is a turnover of funds, and consequently, accounting and tax reporting. If a lawyer studies legislation, identifies legal risks, forms strategies and writes contracts, then an accountant fixes and analyzes figures, prepares financial documents.
The need for an accountant (in the old way “book specialist”) first appeared in ancient India, where accounting for agricultural activities was required. The accountants of that time were counting the sown areas, grown and not sprouted seeds and harvested crops.
Counting and writing down the calculations – that’s what was required of the bibliologist. Over time, its functionality has changed, but not much: there are more formal requirements for filling out documents, including electronic ones, and differentiated legal liability for errors.
Description of responsibilities
An accountant is an accountant with knowledge of the law. It collects and displays in the registers information about the financial position of the organization by the reporting date. The reporting date is the day on which the accounting (financial) statements are prepared. By law, this is the last calendar day of the reporting period, that is, December 31, or the day of the reorganization or liquidation of the enterprise.
By the end of the year, the burden of work on the shoulders of an accountant increases significantly: you need to check every figure in the invoices, every comma in the statements. A mistake is costly: for a gross violation of accounting or financial reporting rules, an administrative fine follows. And sometimes criminal liability.
Throughout the year – before the submission of grandiose reporting – the book specialist is engaged in:
- drawing up and checking the “primary” (primary accounting documents), its acceptance from counterparties,
- tracking the facts of document flow violations in the company,
- systematization of financial documentation in accordance with the requirements of accounting policies (this is in every organization),
- preparation of copies of documents and their transfer to archives.
An accountant is an attentive, specific, punctual and responsible person. He is required to be able to use specialized computer programs for accounting, information and legal reference systems, electronic signatures , office equipment.
The accountant is also expected to be able to navigate the law enforcement practice on the issues of registration of the “primary”, which includes the ability to track fresh court decisions, trends and follow them. If a bibliologist works in tandem with a lawyer, then the conduct of financial and reporting cases is greatly simplified: a lawyer will always notify a colleague who checks the numbers about a high-profile arbitration, administrative or criminal case and explain their features.
Types of specialists and their functions
Before becoming an accountant, it is recommended to decide on the direction of work. The list of official duties, salary, career prospects depend on this. Career guidance will help to cope with these tasks. By performing simple tests, it will allow you to find out the directions in which the applicant will have the most interesting and easiest.
Types of accountants and description of professions:
- accountant or junior employee – must be versed in the basics of market relations, accounting systems, tax and commercial legislation. Maintain reports at small enterprises or certain areas of the company’s work;
- a technician or an ordinary employee – they are engaged in reporting, accounting or analysis of the company’s activities. The minimum you need to know is the basics of auditing, financial and management accounting;
- economist – these are chief accountants or their deputies who have good prospects. They can analyze the work of the company, internal audit, economic accounting. Basic accounting skills should be supported by knowledge in the field of banking, the basics of marketing, finance and organization management;
- auditor – senior employees who are engaged in external audit and analysis of economic indicators.
Everything that an accountant of a particular group should know can be studied in specialized universities, specialized secondary schools, and courses. According to statistics, only half of the workers in this area have higher education. Increasingly, young people are trying to learn the basics of their specialty and further improve their skills through courses depending on the chosen direction.
Employees of this financial profile occupy responsible positions in small, medium and large businesses. They are in demand in banks and investment funds. Without such employees, the activities of economic sectors, including state ones, are impossible. Accountants are needed both in industrial enterprises and construction organizations, as well as in the service or entertainment sector. They are included in the staff of tax inspections, pension and other social funds, insurance agencies, charitable organizations.